Dynamics of policy change and their implications for long-term policymaking

    To achieve longterm governance, anybody will have to grapple with the complexity of policy-making processes. Understanding empirical behaviours in combination with micro-level dynamics can provide useful guidance to achieving policy change, as the complete picture allows to calibrate expectations and inform intuitions. Looking at public budgets, we learn that policy change is incremental, yet occasionally sudden and radical. We can explain slow changes through policy-learning and predict punctuations observing policy entrepreneurship. To effect policy change, there are four leverage points: information supply, information processing, network structures and institutional incentives. This paper explains the need to move beyond information supply and towards building capacity for policy entrepreneurship, while being mindful of the value of institutional changes that install long-term policy-learning abilities.